EXTRACT FROM THE MICRONATION PAGE : http://www.execpc.com/~talossa/patsilor.html
This page is provided for your information by the Progressive Conservative Party of Talossa and is current through September 1997. Direct email contact with Talossa can be made at email@example.com. Please use this address if you have any corrections or additions to suggest!
The Kingdom of Talossa is an independent, sovereign nation in North America which seceded peacefully from the United States in 1979. According to a statement approved in a 1993 referendum,"The Kingdom of Talossa is a community of persons having fun by doing things which are reasonably similar to what other ('real') countries do, whether for reasons of tourist nostalgia, out of a lust for power, in pursuit of parody, or--yes--as nationbuilding. It is often classed as an "imaginary country," but prefers the label "micronation."
Colonies : The RT claims a chunk of Antarctica called Pengöpäts, which is not claimed by any other nation. The island of Cézembre, off the coast of Brittany, was an RT colony from 1982 until it became a Province in 1996. Also the New Falklands, some rocks near the beach of Rochebonne in St Malo (Brittany - France) under Cezembre's juridiction. In 1984 French troops occupied a portion of the island and placed it behind barbed wire. During a 1986 visit, King Robert I and then-Prime Minister Frederic Maugey liberated part of the French-occupied zone (due to deficiencies in French barbed-wire technology) and had a picnic. Other colonial claims (such as Ellis Island, Iceland, a town in Germany, and some sand-bars in the Pacific) were abandoned years ago because they were 'unrealistic.'
* Found at http://www.new-utopia.com *
A Letter To The Secretary General Of The United Nations Concerning NEW UTOPIA
Mr. Kofi Annan
June 9, 1997
New York, NY 10017
Dear Mr. Secretary,
Please consider this letter a formal request to begin the process of application for The Principality of New Utopia to join The United Nations. New Utopia, a constitutional monarchy, has existed since September of 1996, and has 314 citizens at this time, but we look forward to having many more join us in the very near future. New Utopia is a new country in the Caribbean. It is comprised of three submerged islands on which will be constructed large platforms forming a base upon which to build the newest most beautiful city/state in the world. We claim as our national territory the area of the Caribbean bound on the north by 19 degrees 15 minutes North Latitude (19.25 degrees North Lat.), the southern boundary located at 18 degrees 15 minutes North Latitude (18.25 degrees North Lat.). The eastern boundary being 83 degrees 30 minutes West Longitude (83.5 degrees West Long.) and the western boundary at 84 degrees 30 minutes West Longitude (84.5 degrees Long.). Our new country is not within 100 miles of any other nation's boundaries, therefore we beg the United Nations for their support and protection, while we are in the crucial development and construction phase of our new country, which is to begin in April 1998. We have studied the Convention on the Law of the Sea as of 16 November 1994; the Rio Declaration, and Agenda 21, all of which are in keeping with the philosophies and Constitution of New Utopia. We pledge to support and assist in every way possible the United Nations and all other member nations.
Richard Stephen Balch, Secretary of State
This "free nation"--as its founder, Mike Oliver, a real estate developer from Carson City, Nevada, calls it--is an island in the Bahamas, 170 miles east of Florida with an area of 700 square miles. Oliver wrote a book about his nation called A New Constitution for a New Country, but the other 6,500 Abaconians have yet to recognize Oliver as their king. He claims Abaconians are "determined not to become another banana republic." (TPA)
The oldest Micronation may be "Atlantis," which was born on some islands off Ecuador in 1933. Someone was once caught trying to enter the U.S. at El Paso, Texas, using an Atlantis passport. This may be the same country listed in Strauss, p. 65, as "Atlantis And Lemuria," a principality or empire which used Esperanto on its official seal. (SPJ)
The Principality of Castellania (Fürstentum Castellania) was created by "Prince Ralph I" and a group of disenchanted Austrians on 17 February 1974. Its location, somewhere in the South Pacific, was kept secret. According to one of its leaders, "Castellania is more a state of mind." The country seems to have been a straight-forward money-making operation, and sold citizenships for $145. (SPJ, Strauss 82)
In July of 1982, the US Border Patrol set up a military-style roadblock on the Overseas Highway in Key West, Florida, where all northbound traffic was stopped and searched for illegal aliens and drugs. The ensuing well-publicized traffic jam effectively stymied Key West's tourism industry. Mayor Dennis Wardlow, along with five local businessmen, hatched a scheme to save the Key West economy. The "Conch Republic" was created, declaring its independence and war on the United States, and then immediately surrendering and applying for foreign aid. The roadblock was discontinued, and the economy was saved. Today, the tradition of the Conch Republic revolution continues with a yearly celebration, and appointment of various Conch Ambassadors. The country has an (unofficial?) web site, and further information is available there, including a free e-zine.
Apparently the José Cuervo Tequila company bought an island in the Caribbean and declared it to be an independent nation on 27 January 1996. They have a website, although they must not be too concerned about getting new citizens, since you need a password to get into the website! The website makes it look like this is all an advertising gimmick, but other reports indicate that the venture is real. [Information courtesy Marc Fraioli]
Ken Nathanson of Canada reports the existence of the "Ederingrijk der Vrieslanden," on an island off Holland in the North Sea which seceded in 1982 and later proclaimed itself "the world's second Jewish state." I am dubious about the actual existence of the Ederingrijk and suspect it is Mr. Nathanson's attempt to get his name into this page.
Elgaland and Vargaland is a long-running micronation based in Sweden. They have a home page, which lists over 160 citizens. The country claims all territory located between other independent states, which includes all ocean waters beyond territorial limits. [Thanks to Gregory A. Tisher for this reference.]
Fira was founded by Frédéric Maugey, a friend of Talossa's King Robert I, at his home in Rueil-Malmaison, near Paris, France, in November 1981. Originally located behind "a door nobody has ever seen" in Maugey's bedroom, early Fira claimed a population of 111,000 ruled over by imaginary generals. Fira joined Talossa on 6 August 1982 in annexing some small islands off the coast of Brittany. Major changes occurred on 30 August 1982 when Maugey formally relocated Fira in his bedroom and named himself "President for Life" and head of the "Supreme Soviet of the People's Republic of Fira." A convoluted government flow-chart was issued in October. Fira joined the League of Secessionist States in January of 1983, but Maugey, who had also been granted Talossan citizenship, concentrated thereafter on Talossan politics and Fira disappeared.
Wheat farmer (now Prince) Leonard George Casley founded this Micronation on 18,500 acres of land in Western Australia, 350 miles from Perth, in 1970, after Australia imposed a wheat quota he couldn't live with. The country now issues stamps and currency of its own devising. The principality's main business is serving tourists. The holiday commemorating the Anniversary of the Secession is held on 21 April. While Prince Leonard remains its head of state, business is conducted by the Prince Regent, Prince Kevin. Hutt River Province is beyond a doubt the world's most profitable Micronation. Attempts by Talossa to establish diplomatic relations have been answered by a barrage of stamp catalogues and offers to sell us ambassadorships and titles of nobility, but a vast amount of information is available at the Hutt River Province web pages, which are currently being rewritten. (Any good search engine will point you to the latest information on Hutt River Province). Because of all its commercialism, there has been a recent (July, 1996) schism; see "Cascadia," above, and according to Peter Armour, there has recently been a coup d'état of some sort following the rumoured death of Prince Kevin in 1996, and all honours and titles bestowed by him have been revoked. We cannot confirm this, however.
In the book 283 Useful Ideas from Japan by Leonard Koren, there is a listing of "independent kingdoms" set up in Japan as marketing ploys & publicity stunts. Letters to the addresses have been either returned, or answered with notices that the "countries" are no longer in operation. Some of these "countries" include Hoshinokuni ("Star Country"), a 950-unit condo whose developer made it an independent country to foster a sense of community. It now has a president, a foreign minister (to deal with surrounding lands), an information ministry, and treaties with local retailers for discounts. Jipangu-koku, Aizu, Ashinomaki-han in Fukushima Prefecture functions like a kingdom of two hundred years ago, when this was a well-known city. Now all six hundred residents dress in samurai garb and play their part--all day, every day. The Republic of Nikko Nikko came into being to reclaim tourists after the high-speed bullet train passed the town by. Over forty-two days 20 million yen was spent to "open" the nation, with games, sports events, and merchandising of souvenirs. The gas station became the Arabian Embassy, the striptease joint became the National Dance Theater, and the plumber became the Chief of Industrial Technology; tourism and business have boomed since "independence." Survival Country in Akita offers a primitive experience and a lodge with no gas, water or electricity. Manga Kingdom in Nagano is devoted to comics (manga). Its Royal Nap Library is for dosing while reading. Artists are honorary ministers.
Most of Japan's growing assortment of "independent" nations have their own passports and currencies. They have now formed a union to help each other devise ways of exploiting the marketing opportunities their status presents. The success of this kind of promotion is underscored by Hoshinokuni's experience. The town's initial investment was a single banner, but all the attendant free publicity offered by the media is estimated to have been worth 1.3 billion Yen. The guidebook offers tips on how to enjoy the country. If you buy a passport, stores will stamp it with a "visa" when you make a purchase. A stamp qualifies you as a sweepstakes entrant. [Information courtesy Steven F. Scharff]
One of the more difficult micronations to evaluate, Landreth has existed in one form or another since 1952. The current monarch is King Theron Paul. The country produces some reasonable-quality publications about itself, and has clearly stood the test of time. However, in some of its materials it claims to be a "non-territorial state," like the Sovereign Order of Malta; in other materials it claims to be located on a totally fictitious island, of which there are very detailed maps showing the "history." [Info courtesy Theron Paul of Landreth.]
Apparently organized by Werner Heise of München, Bavaria, Laputa claims to be located on the (apparently imaginary) North Pacific island of that name 'discovered' by Lemuel Gulliver in the novel Gulliver's Travels. It claims dominion over the whole northern hemisphere. Its ruler is President Roman Bold, "President of the Provisional Laputian Revolutionary Council." The country fought a war with San Serriffe (q.v.), which unconditionally surrendered. Laputa defines its government as a "pornocracy" (la puta in Spanish means "the whore") and there are several Dr. Strangelove references in the country's propaganda (Laputa was the primary target for the ill-fated bomber mission in the film). The country recently refused to join the League of Secessionist States.
Established in 1972 by a declaration of sovereignty by a group of Californians, this Micronation claims dominion over two coral reefs 17 miles apart in the South Pacific--although they disappear at high tide. Minerva (nicknamed "the Land of the Rising Atoll") is some 3,400 miles southwest of Honolulu and 915 miles northeast of Auckland, New Zealand. President Morris C. "Bud" Davis, a former project engineer with North American Rockwell, runs his domain from the living room of his suburban home in Gustine, California. Originally the plan was to attract a population of 60,000 to a fancy sea resort, called Sea City, which was to be constructed on the reefs, where residents would have "no taxation, welfare, subsidies, or any other form of economic interventionism." Since the main income was to be from the registration of international cargo ships, the Sea City project foundered for lack of funds. A ship was, however, purchased to carry sand out to the homeland for "a major landfill project." Minerva also had a political skirmish with the Republic of Tonga over ownership of the reefs that nearly led to war. When Davis made his original claim by building a small stone tower on one reef, with a flasher on it and the Minervan flag (a torch on a blue field), King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV set sail from Tonga 200 miles to the northeast aboard the ship Olovaba with the 100-man Tonga Defence Force (they are recruited from among prisoners). They tore down the flag and read a Tongan proclamation of sovereignty. Said Davis, "We can't for the life of us understand why the king should suddenly decide he wants the reefs." While Minerva remains uninhabited, the conflict is dormant. (TPA)
This Micronation has its capital on Meads Island in the South China Sea, an island not marked in standard atlases. In 1914 Franklin M. Meads proclaimed the "Kingdom of Humanity" and named Willis Alva Bryant "King Willi." King Willi was later reported drowned in a hurricane. Since 1954, Franklin's grandson Morton has run the "Monarchical Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads" and claimed all territory in a 700-mile sweep of water between the Philippines and Vietnam. Its government renamed these waters the Humanity Sea and threatened to confiscate an oil rig set up by the Shell Oil Company. Any person making claims on property of the republic risks the death penalty. The national flag is yellow and black with two figs in a white star, the national anthem is Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, and the motto is "Conscience, Intelligence, Courage, Principia Non Homines." (TPA, SPJ, Strauss 147)
This is a one-square-mile island 32 miles west of Haiti, in the direction of Jamaica, whose coast consists of 60-foot cliffs. The US Coast Guard claims responsibility for it, but David P. Billington declared himself King, and maintains a web site for Navassa Island. There is also a constitution for the country, but it makes no provision for royalty. (Strauss 109; information from David Billington.)
Some Libertarians decided to form Oceania in February 1993, after one of them lost a race for State Senate in Nevada. Eric Klien, her campaign manager, claimed fraud but was met by "death threats and intimidation by goons." (Which in Libertarian lingo probably means a census taker came within a mile of his house.) Klien "gave up on the U.S." at that point and floated the plan for Oceania, an artificial Caribbean island 50 miles north of Panama in a supposedly hurricane-proof zone, which could be a new sovereign nation and "capitalist paradise." The project collapsed in April of 1994 but was recently revived. Once the country is built, it will be a Libertarian haven for drug-abusers, tax-evaders and whoever else wants to live there. Taxation and zoning laws will be banned. Somehow, "majority-rule" will be outlawed as well, though people can be punished by exile. Oceania is named for the totalitarian country in Orwell's 1984, though it claims to hold different ideals. There are a number of (fairly slow) Oceania-related web sites. The official one is http://oceania.org/. [Info courtesy Erwin Wodarczak.]
This is the world's largest Micronation, taking up all the seas of the world beyond national 3-mile limits. It includes, for example, the Mediterranean, but not the Suez and Panama Canals. Chief Executive and self-styled Admiral of Oceanus, Ed Welles, of Manset, Maine, plans to patrol his empire with PT boats and submarines abetted by a small air force. Income, as with Minerva (q.v.), would come from international ship registration. This cannot begin, however, until all the nations of the world agree to give Ed Welles sovereignty over the seas. As for his nation's legal status, Welles asks, "Look, how does any government start out? Somebody says, 'Pay me taxes,' and he's in business. The U.S.A. said, 'We exist,' and the country was born. In 1970 eight people said, 'We are,' and there was Oceanus.'" Welles issues passports intended to end the problems of stateless persons, because anyone can get one, but there has been no official recognition. Oceanus also issues amateur radio broadcasting licences and hopes the Federal Communications Commission will object, because "if they give us any flak, they are recognizing us." Welles runs his empire from a 93-foot sailing schooner, which also serves as Oceanus' supreme court building in which he has charged oil companies with polluting his territory with spills. All nations are welcome, Welles says, to participate in the laws of the Oceanus constitution for the rule of the seas. (TPA)
Sandaria was founded on 17 April 1990 by Elected Crown Prince Jordan Bouray, and claims the entire continent of Antarctica. There is a complex government structure, and the country is actively soliciting people to become citizens. Sandaria is a member of the League of Secessionist States. More info was available at the country's web site, but it went inactive sometime during 1997.
Saya de Malha is a mysterious place; our only contact with it is from someone in France who refuses to use his real name and who speaks neither English nor French very well. "O-Marion" claims that Saya de Malha is a sandbar in the middle of the Indian Ocean which was declared a sovereign nation by Pierre Metger, of French aristocratic stock, on 5 January 1989. The country claims 140 citizens in Mauritius, South Africa, Canada, Australia and France. The flag is white with an azure cross. Saya de Malha claims to be a "zone of world peace designated by the U.N." Little more is known about it, but the Republic of Texas (q.v.) signed a "mutual recognition treaty" of some sort with them. [Information courtesy "O-Marion," Steven F. Scharff.]
One of the tiniest Micronations, Sealand, lying 6 miles off the coast of Felixtowe, Essex, England, in the English Channel, is the size of a baseball diamond and consists of a steel platform created during World War Two as a radar and gun installation, known as a "Maunsell Fort." The fort, called "Roughs Tower," was taken over around 1966 by two British businessmen, Roy Bates and Ronan O'Rahilly. O'Rahilly was the head of the pirate radio station "Radio Caroline" and Bates--an infamous tax-evader--was the former owner of a similar venture, "Radio Essex." The two men planned to seize the fort and convert it into a "fun palace," a "health farm" for exhausted show business people and insomniacs. However, the two men had a falling out, and Roy Bates took control of the tower. O'Rahilly's men attempted to seize control in June of 1967, but were repulsed by Bates' men, who defended the tower with guns, Molotov cocktails, petrol bombs, and even a flame-thrower! By August, the dispute had escalated and a detachment of Royal Marine commandos was preparing to retake the tower for Britain. The British government ordered Bates to surrender the tower "to prevent it falling into the hands of foreign interests," but Bates vowed to defend the tower with force.
At this point, Roy Bates declared the tower an independent nation, "The Principality of Sealand," on 2 September 1967. According to one witness, Bates told British officials: "This has nothing to do with you. I can tell them to murder someone if I want to. I am the person responsible for the law in Sealand." By October of 1968 the standoff was still continuing. Roy Bates was hauled into court on guns charges, but was acquitted when the court ruled that Roughs Tower was outside British territorial waters. It is reported that Prince Roy once warded off British customs craft by firing a rifle over their bows. Sealand was reportedly still going strong in 1984, although one source claims Bates had to abandon the territory in the early 1990's because of rough weather. (TPA; World War Two magazine, March 1996; The Times [London], June 1967-October 1968; Strauss 132-138)
To give Maori people, "a race that is speeding to oblivion," a place "to call their own, their rightful place in the sun," King and Absolute Ruler Michael Heatara signed a declaration of independence in 1985 establishing the Maori Kingdom of Tetiti Islands in the South Pacific. His special envoy offered the U.S. a long-term lease on one island, situated about 500 miles off the New Zealand coast. The territory claimed may be identical to New Zealand's Chatham Islands. (SPJ)
President and Acting Secretary of State Leicester Hemingway (younger brother of noted author Ernest) claimed Christmas Island, a 100-yard stretch of sand in the Bahamas, as his own republic in 1973. Its constitution is adopted word-for-word from that of the United States. (TPA)